A depressive illness or a passing feeling? Mental detachment or a precursor to genius? Melancholy is a critical part of what it is to be human, yet we all seems intent on removing all signs of sadness, depression, or, quite simply, low moods from our own lives.
These are some questions raised in the beginning of Bowring’s text:
Why should being sad mean that you’re mad?
Why are geniuses so often melancholic?
How can things that are sorrowful be beautiful?
from A Field Guide to Melancholy — melancholy & madness, a short history:
- Hippocrates: If fear or sadness last for a long time it is melancholia.
- Paul of Aegina: Melancholy is a disorder of the intellect without fever.
- During Elizabethan times, melancholia, madness and witchcraft were closely linked. Satan rather than Saturn became the governing force for melancholy in the eyes of those who considered it a sign of possession by the devil, or a punishment for evil. At this time, the ‘mad’ version of melancholy (as opposed to the ‘good’ melancholy associated with geniuses) was mainly associated with women, who were, in the words of sixteenth century Dutch doctor Jan Weir: ‘raving, poor, simple, useless, ignorant, gullible, stupid, vile, uneducated, infatuated, toothless, silly, unsteady …old.’
- In The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) Robert Burton set out to describe all the forms of melancholy, including head melancholy, hypochondriacal melancholy, religious melancholy, love melancholy, and ‘Maids, Nuns, and Widows’ Melancholy’. This form of definition by description, running to some 783 pages in the first edition, rather than achieving any kind of precision served to further emphasise the complexity of melancholy.
- Samuel Johnson: Melancholy has no positive dimensions, no aspect of genius, and is a sign of insanity.
- Sigmund Freud Mourning and Melancholia (1917): melancholia is a pathological condition, a state wherein mourning fails to reach completion. The individual, or ego, embeds their sense of loss within themselves, refusing to allow the loss to pass. Freud described how the ‘[t]he shadow of the object fell upon the ego’ and ‘the loss of the object had been transformed into the loss of ego’, so that the loss of the object, whether it be a person or an idea, becomes the same as the loss of the self.
A Field Guide to Melancholy does not romanticise depression, and is rather part of a salvage operation, reclaiming melancholy’s bitter-sweetness.